The main active lyghtening ingredients are:
Phenylethyl resorcinol: a whitening agent derived from pine trees that has been found to have the ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity. 2-3 times more effective as a skin lightener that Kojic acid.
Lactic acid: aha to treat hyperpigmentation, age spots and improve uneven skin tone.
Sodium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin c): a stable, water-soluble form of vitamin c that functions as an antioxidant and is potentially effective for bryghtening an uneven skin tone.
Cucumis sativus (cucumber) extract: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and skin-conditioning properties, reduces excess oil.
Emblica phyllanthus (indian gooseberry) extract: contains very high amounts of vitamin c, or ascorbic acid, a powerful antioxidant known to reduce wrinkles, suppress pigmentation, and help skin retain its natural moisture.
Ascorbyl palmitate (vitamin c): a soluble derivative of vitamin c, which is non irritant and more stable than pure vitamin c, which means it is well suited for extra sensitive skin.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry) leaf extract: bearberry extract has antioxidant properties, and is known to have skin-bryghtening properties.
Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) extract: antioxidant, skin-conditioning agent – humectant, licorice is a soothing and healing extract used to treat sensitive, irritated or inflamed skin. It also helps to reduce the appearance of age spots and discoloration as a natural skin lightener.
Morus alba (mulberry) extract: has antioxidant properties, but its main benefit for skin has to do with calming signs of irritation along with its potential to fade the look of discolorations and uneven skin tone.
Citrus medica limonum (lemon) extract: high levels of natural antioxidants, particularly vitamin c. Research has shown the association between application of vitamin c and the protection of skin from potential UV damage, as well as its ability to help lighten discoloration.